Going Underground: Mining and Quarrying in Wessex

The legend of Joseph of Arimathea being a tin trader who brought the boy Jesus to Glastonbury will be the subject of its own article in due course, and so lies outside he scope of this post, but it does testify to the antiquity of Wessex's mining history. Since prehistoric times, Wessex's mineral resources have been a major source of her wealth.

Wheal Betsy engine house, near Mary Tavy, Devon.

The British Isles have long been thought to be the Tin Islands mentioned by Herodotus, and remains of iron age tin mines have been found on Dartmoor. Extraction was probably through the use of stone hammers, antler picks and wooden wedges. Many churches in Devon feature the symbol of the "tinners' rabbits", three rabbits or hares chasing each other in a circle. The same symbol appears in Asia, originating in China and associated with Buddhism. There is some debate as to whether it was brought to Devon by traders travelling the Silk Road, or whether it appeared independently as a motif from insular Celtic art.

Roof boss at St Pancras Church, Widecombe-in-the-Moor, Devon. Note the way each rabbit appears to have two ears, yet there are only three ears in total.

In Roman times, the Mendips were a major source of lead. Pigs (ingots) of lead from Charterhouse have been found as far afield as France, stamped with their place of origin and the names of emperors from the first and second centuries AD.

The Mendips were also mined for calamine, a generic name for the zinc ores nowadays known by their specific names of smithsonite and hemimorphite, to distinguish them from the disgusting pink gloop that many of us will have had smeared all over us as kids when we had chicken pox. These ores are mixed with copper to form brass, an alloy which was in great demand from the 16th century, when brass combs came to be preferred for wool-carding.

The Free Mine exhibit at the Dean Heritage Centre.

Whilst coal has been mined in the British Isles since at least Roman times, used for smelting iron and making bronze, the industrial revolution massively increased the demand. The needs of mining drove the invention of Thomas Newcomen's steam engine - which of course required coal to power it, creating a cycle of production and consumption. Coal mining was mostly confined to the northern half of Wessex: the Forest of Dean, the Oxfordshire- Berkshire coalfield, south Gloucestershire and north Somerset. A small amount also took place in Devon, particularly of lignite, or brown coal, a low-grade coal used mainly in electricity generation. The Forest of Dean was specifically exempted from the 1946 Coal Nationalisation Act, and freeminer Rich Daniels currently operates Hopewell Colliery, the last working coal mine in Wessex, though it is nowadays more of a tourist attraction than a genuine contibution to Wessex's energy needs.

As well as mining, Wessex also has a long history of quarrying for stone, sand and gravel. Jim Gunter, who comes from a long line of Cotswold stonemasons, very kindly sent me some information on some tools used in quarrying. The illustration above comes from County Relics: An Account of Some Old Tools and Properties Once Belonging to English craftsmen and husbandmen saved from destruction and now described with their users and their stories by H J Massingham & Thomas Hennell (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2011). The slat-pick shown used to be known in the Cotswolds as a Pittaway, which was also the surname of Jim's great-grandmother. This is not a coincidence - it speaks to a familial connection with our Society's treasurer.

Hamstone wall from tithe barn, Haslebury Mill, Somerset (Image: Wikimedia Commons)

Cotswold stone is not the only honey-coloured limestone from Wessex. Ham Hill stone from Somerset (sometimes shortened to Hamstone) has been described by Simon Jenkins as "the loveliest building material in England". There were once 24 small quarries on Ham Hill, but now the number is down to just two. As well as being used as a building material, Hamstone was burned locally in kilns for the manufacture of lime.

Portland Stone is arguably one of Wessex's best-known exports. The Cenotaph in Whitehall (above) and the UN headquarters in New York are among the high-status structures made from this Jurassic limestone, but the oldest known example is local: Rufis Castle on the Isle of Portland. Originally built in 1080, walls from the mid-15th century still survive today. However, stone quarrying on the Isle has certainly been going on a lot longer than that, as several Roman sarcophagi made from blocks of Portland stone have been unearthed in Dorset over the years.

A blog post such as this can barely do justice to such a vast and fascinating subject. I hope that you will click on some of the links embedded in this post, and maybe visit some of the attractions whose websites provided much of the information for this article.

Cross and Crescent in Wessex Seas, part 1

A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs

...in Aleppo once
Where a malignant and a turban'd Turk
Beat a Venetian and traduced the state,
I took to the throat the circumcised dog
And smote him thus.

Othello, Act 5, Scene 2

Shakespeare's Othello, the Moor of Venice, having abjured his religion, was credited with unswerving loyalty to the state of Venice, with whom he had taken service. The seemingly everlasting conflict between Islam and Christendom did not merely envelop the Mediterranean and Middle East, but soon extended to Western Europe, pirate galleys reaching as far as Iceland. Wessex was certainly not immune from pillaging and plunder. Extensive records, especially from the 17th century, show that authorities often fought a losing battle against the marauders--on one occasion, 50 men, women and children walking along the coast at St Michael's Mount in Cornwall were next heard of in the slave market in Algiers.

The Barbary Pirates who crewed most of the galleys which plagued our shores took their name from the Berbers of the Mahgreb hinterland; but in fact their bases at Tunis, Algiers and Sallee were independent cities, offering for a time a vague alliegance to the Caliphate of Baghdad. Later, these brigands tended to be referred to by the catch-all name of 'Turks'.

Thomas Norton, a Devon merchant captain, was captured by pirates in 1620. He escaped to Sallee where "he (went) to sea on his own account and (was) credited to exceed the Turks in cruelty to his own countrymen".

Sometimes captives were able to gain freedom by overpowering their captors, occasionally because the corsairs with their rowed galleys were unfamiliar with the skills needed to handle captured sailing ships. John Rawlins, captain of a small Plymouth barque, was captured in 1621, sold on to the renegade Ramanda Rais (real name Henry Chandler), and employed as a pilot. Rawlins managed to win over the motley crew of slaves and renegades, and stage a mutiny with a cry of "God, King James, and St George for England". With what must have been enormous courage and leadership, he sailed the ship safely back to Plymouth.

It is difficult for us to conceive that often the same people and places indulged in trade, war and piracy simultaneously, The Christian powers of Genoa, Venice and Catalonia were early in the field. Although both Christians and Muslims encouraged religious fervour for their activities, people frequently changed their religious alliegance in order to save their skins and/or make some money.

On 18th August 1625, the Mayor of Bristol declared that Ilfracombe was threatened by Turkish ships from Lundy Island and there were reports of three pirate ships at large in the Bristol Channel. After an enquiry was held, Captain Harris of HMS Phoenix refuted this alarming information, but a Nicholas Cullen maintained that the Turks had been there a fortnight, adding that "I saw the Turkish ship lying the road off Lundy."

The merchants and shipowners of Exeter, Plymouth, Barnstaple, Dartmouth and other places in a petition to the Lords of the Council, dated September 2 1636, stated that the pirates had become so numerous and terrible in their ships, and so well piloted into the Channel by English and Irish captives, that they dared not send their vessels to see, seamen refused to go, and fishermen refrained from taking fish. A few years later, the number of slaves had greatly increased, as appears by a petition, dated October 3 1640, to His Majesty. stating that at that time, there were no less than 3000 poor English in miserable captivity, undergoing divers and most insufferable labours, such as rowing in galleys, drawing carts, grinding in mills, with divers such unchristian-like works most lamentable to express, and most burdensome to undergo, withal suffering much hunger and many blows on their bare bodies, by which cruelty many, not being able to undergo it, have been forced to turn Mohammedan.

RF Playfair (Smith, Elder 1884)

Queen Elizabeth I was, no doubt, angered by piratical incursions into her realm. She wrote: "Inasmuch at that cost of Devonshyre and Cornwall is by report much hanted by pyrattes and Rovers to cause on or too apt vessells be made redy with all spede iit some ports ther abouts." Her frugality suggested that the necessary expenditure to be obtained from captured men and ships.

The story of the Barbary pirates is endlessly fascinating, but there was a plethora of other disreputable maritime activities going on simultaneously. In particular the privateers, privately owned and manned armed vessels given letters of marque to prey on shipping of hostile foreign powers. Wessex seamen in numbers made a great deal of fairly dubious wealth from signing up for expeditions.

To be continued...

Join the Club


I have been writing a series of posts about Wessex Political Thinkers over at the Wessex Regionalist blog. This was originally intended to be a part of that series, but I thought it more properly belonged here, for two reasons. Firstly, because their interest seemed more related to history than current politics. And secondly, because political theory was never really their thing.

The Clubmen were a movement that arose during the English Civil War in response to depredations inflicted on the general populace by both royalist and parliamentarian troops. Originally founded in south-west Mercia in 1644, bands of  Clubmen sprang up the following year in virtually every county of Wessex, with their heartlands being in Somerset, Wiltshire and Dorset. Their symbol was the white ribbon, but these were no "peace at any price" non-interventionists; rather, their slogan was "resist all plunderers." Some favoured the royalist cause, others the parliamentarian, but all were sick of the war, and prepared to take up cudgels--literally--to defend their property, and their womenfolk.

The first Clubman uprising in Wessex came, appropriately enough, on St Ealdhelm's Day 1645, when 4000 Dorsetshire Clubmen assembled near Shaftesbury, at the site known to this day as Clubmen's Down. It is thought that many of the ringleaders had been involved in the Western Rising of twenty years earlier, against enclosures and disafforestation, but this is mostly conjecture based on the fact that many of the riots occurred at the same locations.

Further uprisings occurred across Wessex in the following months. On August 4th, Cromwell dispersed nearly 2000 clubmen at Hambledon Hill, killing around 50 or so. Combatants on the Clubman side included the future Bishop of Gloucester, Robert Frampton, and his four brothers. Shortly afterwards, the Clubmen of Gloucestershire, Somerset and Devon appear to have been won over to the parliamentarian cause, and at a meeting in Dundry on September 7th, they agreed to aid Fairfax in the siege of Bristol.

As the uprisings ended in the western part of Wessex, they were just beginning in the east. Roundhead troops were diverted from the siege of Basing House, seat of the Marquis of Winchester and a key royalist stronghold, in order to suppress a nearby rebellion by Hampshire Clubmen. In Berkshire, the Clubmen were said to number 16000, more than either the Cavaliers or the Roundheads in that county.

In November, 3000 Clubmen met on Bredon Hill in Worcestershire and openly declared for parliament. After that, they survived in the form of local militias acting on behalf of the New Model Army. Their last gasp was an ill-fated attack on Princes Rupert and Maurice as they retreated to Oxford. Interestingly, the use of the word "club" to mean an association is first recorded shortly after the English Civil War, so it is possible that their legacy lives on in the English language, long after they themselves have faded into history.

St Ealdhelm’s Day 2019

Wantage Morris Men flying the Wessex flag in Oxford on Mayday morning

The image above comes courtesy of Chris McDowell. It is good to see the wyvern being flown earlier this month on Icknield Way. It serves as a nice appetiser for our annual St Ealdhelm's Day event, which this year takes place in Lacock and Chippenham. Normally, the event takes place on the nearest Sunday, but as May 25th falls on a Saturday this year, we are holding it on the actual day.

We are fortunate to have Leo Stevens acting as our host at Lacock. Leo has lived in this preserved and special village all his life and his family roots there go back hundreds of years. We will visit the church - which hopefully will be flying the Wessex flag - and the tithe barn as well as a pub with a dog-driven spit - the origin of hot dogs (maybe not).

After lunch we will head on to Chippenham and visit King Alfred's hunting lodge where he was attacked by those pesky Vikings at Twelfth Night in 878AD. We can also visit the local museum and talk about the "unusual" situation in that part of Wiltshire during the early years of the Saxon settlement.

To get even more back to our roots, our visit coincides with the Chippenham Folk Festival, so the town will be buzzing.

We will meet in Lacock's car park at 11 am. That will give us about one and a half hours or so in the village; time for lunch and then head to Chippenham about 2pm for the remainder of the day.

Would everyone coming please let us know so we can try to book a table for lunch. If you have any queries, feel free to post them in the comments.

BBC Introducing in Wessex and Cornwall 26.03.2019

This may be our last Spotify playlist. The BBC has said that the ability to save tracks from their radio shows and export them to Spotify will cease at the end of this month, but didn't specify an exact date. We may get one next week as well, but if not, you can at least enjoy this one.